The government of Quebec’s law 101 (since revised and supplemented by law 86) has been a rallying cry for those (usually Soverenignists) who believe that there should be little or no English visible in Quebec. It is also used to prevent access to schooling in English for immigrants. The United Nations has pointed out to the Quebec government that this law is violates international civil rights, but as yet nothing has changed. After two referendums, Montrealers and Quebecers are still suffering from this tiresome debate on language.
Soverenignity-Association First used as a slogan by the Mouvement Souverainete-Association (MSA), forerunners to the Parti Quebecois, the phrase became the PQ’s cornerstone and main objective. Introduced in the document Option Quebec, written by party leader Rene Levesque, the expression replaced the word independence and implied the idea of an association which would evolved from an agreement under international law and be limited to the economic domain (1967).
Clinton Archibald, the Canadian Encyclopedia, p. 2053.
Referendum, the referring of a political question to an electorate for direct decision by general vote. Deriving from the Latin, ad referendum, meaning that which must be taken back or that which must be submitted to an assembly, its roots lie in ancient Rome where the vote of the plebes (“Plebicite”) invested the emperor with his position. Referendum and plebicite are often used interchangeably.
Vincent Lemieux, The Canadian Encyclopedia, pp. 1838-1839.
Referendum, the referring of a political question to an electorate for direct decision by general vote. Deriving from the Latin, ad referendum, meaning that which must be taken back or that which must be submitted to an assembly, its roots lie in ancient Rome where the vote of the plebes (“Plebicite”) invested the emperor with his position. Referendum and plebicite are often used interchangeably. Vincent Lemieux, The Canadian Encyclopedia, pp. 1838-1839.
Rufus Rockhead, the owner of Rockheads Paradise, a jazz club in Little Burgundy frequented by Montreal’s black community and jazz musicians across North America.
October 1970, October Crisis, the kidnapping on 5 Oct 1970 of James Cross, the British trade commissioner in Montreal, by members of the FRONT DE LIBERATION DU QUEBEC.
Words and music G. Scott MacLeod.
Coming out of the point, from the Charlevoix bridge
Past the canal, where Rufus Rockhead is
I ponder this city, like it was mine
Almost lost my footing, with a suffering mind
Lest we forget our histories
Plains of Abraham
It's a hate love affair, two solitude city
Two wrongs bring out, the right wing rage
Living in harmony, until they tell us we can't
Apprende une autre langue, par ce que c’est possible
Then they will outlaw, what I say
Because they changed the politics of the day
Go to Toronto, Go to Toronto
My, my, my Montreal
Why do we have the Queen, on our money
When Canada’s, no longer a colony
Une langue pure laine, ca na pas d’allure
Quand on a des Jean O’Brian and des Claudine Lu
Rage de bleu fleur de lys
Spray paint all English signs you see
My, my, my Montreal.
The kidnappers’ demands, communicated in a series of public messages, included the freeing of a number of convicted or detained FLQ members and the broadcasting of the FLQ manifesto. The manifesto, a diatribe against established authority, was read on Radio-Canada, and on Oct 10 the Quebec minister of justice offered safe passage abroad to the kidnappers in return for the liberation of their hostage; but on the same day a second FLQ cell kidnapped the Quebec minister of labour and immigration. Pierre LaPorte. On Oct 15 the Quebec Government requested the assistance of the Canadian Armed Forces to supplement the local police, and on Oct 16 the federal government proclaimed the existence of a state of “apprehended insurrection” under the WAR MEASURES ACT. Under the emergency regulations, the FLQ was banned, normal liberties were suspended, and arrests and detentions were authorized without charge. Over 450 persons were detained in Quebec, most of whom were eventually released without the laying or hearing of charges.
Denis Smith, The Canadian Encyclopedia, p. 1558.
Richler, Mordecai. O Canada! O Quebec!